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He associated the students with his work, setting them tasks that he would never have dreamed of asking of his pupils at the Sorbonne. 54 b2 XX CONTENTS BOOK I STUDY OF THE SOUNDS, OR PHONETICS (History of the Pronunciation.) 19.
Nowhere else did he feel himself to be so well understood ; and this is the supreme object and the supreme reward of the master.
We were only a set of ignorant young girls at the school, but 1 am very sure that the void he has left could nowhere have been felt more deeply." 'Genuine popularization is impossible save by masters of science ; these lectures, retouched annually by my brother during the seven years of his teaching at Sevres, and enlarged for the public of the Faculte des Lettres, will find among students generally the same success that they formerly had among the girls at Sevres.' Many portions of the course were developed so as to make it suitable for University audiences, but the book remains accessible to students with no previous knowledge of Latin. Arsene Darmesteter was preparing this book for the press, when, in the prime of life, he was carried off by disease.
"We had sucli admiration for him," one of them wrote to me ; " we were so proud of him and of his work, that the smallest bit of copying or handiwork was cherished as an honour.
Arsene was charged with the organization of the teaching of the French language.
vi PREFACE with distrust and anxiety in many quarters, and according to the failure or success of its first trial in practice might ruin the cause of female education for years, or give it a decisive triumph.
PC 310 1 , D3 viii PREFACE The work is divided into four books : — Book I. But, in spite of the restriction which I laid on myself, the modifications of the original text have been not a few and increasing in number as the historical survey approached modern times. For Chapter VI, I had at my disposal, not the author's notes, but a pupil's draft of his notes read over and paged by the author. It seemed superfluous to distinguish those which occur in Low Latin texts from those whose existence has been deduced from French and other Romance languages. ' Wherever French words are traceable to a Latin type differing from the classical type, the fact has been indicated, ^ New matter, wherever diflference of opinion seemed at all possible, or where it concerned only an English reader, has been enclosed in brackets. In the later portion of the book such strictness would have caused unnecessary awkwardness. Muret writes : — ' The reader will notice with regard to Latin examples that the feminines of the ist declension, in -a, are always quoted in the nominative case, while feminines of the 3rd declension, and all masculines, are quoted in the accusative. The reason for this will be found in Book II, §§ 145-153, on the history of the Latin declension in Gaul. 'The asterisk (as in ^vervicem) is used throughout to denote Latin words not to be found in dictionaries of classical and ecclesiastical usage. These scruples will no doubt seem justified alike by the elementary character of the work and the respect due to the memory of the author. ' In reading the proofs of the excellent English trans- lation by Mr. Hartog, I have allowed myself to deal somewhat more freely than with the French text entrusted to my care. It is hoped that in a future edition this may serve to control any points where doubt may exist as to the author's views. xii PREFACE the call for supplementary information \ Very great pains have been taken to eliminate errors,^ although in so immense a mass of detail it is practically impossible to get rid of these entirely. Typographical Conventions, — The conventions of the French text have been scrupulously followed in Book I, dealing with Phonetics, where strictness was essential. In his introduction to the Collected Essays of Arsene Darmesteter ^, his brother James Darmesteter has told the story of the inception of this Cours de Grammaire Historiqiie de la langue frangaise, based on the lectures given by the author to the students of the Ecole Normale Superieure des Filles at Sevres from the time of its foundation until the author's death : — 'At the end of 1881, M. On the success of this school, intended to train teachers for high schools for girls, depended the whole success of the law which ex nihilo had created secondary education for girls in France. Their other lectures they followed dutifully and as a matter of course ; his they attended with pleasure, intelligence, and enthusiasm. HISTORICAL FRENCH GRAMMAR s- HISTORICAL FRENCH GRAMMAR BY ARSfe NE DARMESTETER LATE PROFESSOR OF THE HISTORY OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE AND OF MEDIAEVAL FRENCH LITERATURE AT THE SORBONNE TO WHICH WAS AWARDED THE PRIX SAINTOUR BY THE FRENCH ACADEMY, 1897 EDITED BY ERNEST MURET and LEOPOLD SUDRE PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GENEVA PROFESSOR AT THF. '; GE STANISLAS, PARIS AUTHORIZED ENGLISH EDITION BY ALPHONSE HARTOG PROFESSOR OF FRENCH AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC llontioii MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1899 All rights reserved ^! )f68l Oxford HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY PREFACE' I. Greard, admirably seconded by the eminent woman whom he had chosen for directress (Mme Jules Favre); was organizing the Ecole Normale Superieure des Filles at Sevres, one of the noblest creations of our educational system since 1870. ' Undeterred by the timid counsels of some, who thought that vague generalities were enough for women, he initiated his auditors into the all-unwonted methods and results of science, not by lowering science to their level, but by raising his pupils to the level of science. His teaching, instead of scaring and embarrassing so ill-prepared an audience — for Latin had no place in their programme even as a voluntary subject — soon became a source of ardent interest to his pupils.