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The flight period was relatively short (22 days), and the adult life span was estimated at 6.59 days, i.e., twice as long when compared with adult longevity in two other threatened species.
Consequently, the temporal fragmentation index (i.e., the ratio of flight period length to adult life span) was calculated at 3.3, which is the lowest value recorded among all congeneric species, suggesting that temporal fragmentation is not a major problem in the investigated population.
In highly fragmented European landscape many butterfly species live on fragmented sites supporting small populations which are at risk of extinction due to demographic and environmental stochasticity as well as inbreeding (Lande (Linnaeus, 1761) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae).
The sampling covered the entire flight period of the focal species, and the site was visited almost every day if the weather was favourable (i.e., sunny and not very windy), between 10 am and 5 pm.
One or two people spent about 2 h on the site during each sampling day.
is considered to be one of the most seriously threatened European butterflies, especially declining in western and central Europe.
It usually occurs in small, discrete colonies forming metapopulation systems, but the exchange of individuals between habitat patches is considered limited.