Lichen as a dating tool
But more than 100 years later, additional discoveries have proved the stele was the real Mc Coy, although left there by Knights Templar of the Middle Ages rather than Norsemen., by Scott F. Although the author of this Revisionist book, who is well known to longtime readers of TBR, is a professional geologist and not a historian, the discoveries made by Wolter in recent years and described in Hooked X are powerful enough to compel a fundamental rethinking of our view of the American past.
The centerpiece of his revelations is that controversial, even contentious artifact known as the Kensington Rune Stone.
Researchers also pointed out several triangular holes cut into boulders, apparently very long ago, observed along riverways leading toward Ohman’s farm; 14th-century Norse seafarers were known to favor triangular mooring holes.
ADDITIONAL FINDS Not far north and 27 years before the Kensington Rune Stone was discovered, an old fire-steel identical to medieval Norse specimens at Oslo’s University Museum emerged from deep beneath the bank of the Red River near Climax, Minnesota.
Mean ring widths of all thalli varied from a minimum of 1.02 mm (the outermost ring) to a maximum of 2.06 mm (the third ring from the margin).
There is some suggestion that marginal ring width and thallus size are positively correlated; and hence that growth rates increase in larger thalli in this small population.
“There was strong support for an authentic rune stone date of 1362,” Winchell concluded, “and little reason to suspect fraud.” But his 1910 report fell into obscurity beneath the louder denunciations of skeptics, who convinced most of the outside world that the Kensington Rune Stone was a ludicrous forgery.In a further study on recently exposed bedrock adjacent to Breidalon, SE Iceland, we examined the potential for using marginal growth rings to estimate thallus age of a lichen tentatively identified as a Rhizocarpon (possibly R.concentricum (Davies) Beltram.) and thus confirm the timing of surface exposure (c. Collectively, these results suggest: 1) the measurement of marginal rings is a possible alternative method of studying the growth of crustose lichens; 2) O.For those who are unfamiliar with it, this is a 200-pound greywacke sandstone stele found by Swedish immigrant farmer, Olof Ohman, while clearing his land in the largely rural township of Solem, Douglas County, Minnesota, during September 1898.Lying face down and entwined in the roots of a stunted, 30-year-old aspen, the 30-by-16-by-six-inch slab was covered on its face and one side with some sort of runic writing.In other words, the Kensington Rune Stone was buried for at least a century before Olof Ohman excavated it.Wolter’s conclusion was based on the complete breakdown of mica crystals on the inscribed surface of the stone, compared to his collected samples of slate gravestones from Maine; these showed that biotite mica began to mechanically flake off their surfaces after 197 years, plus or minus five years.Compelling considerations such as these prompted investigators to seek out professional help of their own in 2000. Paul-based American Petrographic Services, a firm specializing in the analysis of construction materials to determine suitability, conformance to specifications, or causes of failure. Wolter, a university-trained, certified geologist, who had never even heard of the Kensington Rune Stone.He would conduct its first detailed physical analysis since Winchell’s investigation, 90 years before.A few amateur researchers had their doubts, however, and wondered if other local evidence might support the rune stone’s pre-Columbian authenticity.For examples, they cited the inscribed text for internal evidence.