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Applying to Pope Sylvester II, Stephen received the insignia of royalty (including probably a part of the Holy Crown of Hungary, currently kept in the Hungarian Parliament) from the papacy.
By 1006, Stephen had consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a Western feudal state.
Initially, the rising Principality of Hungary ("Western Tourkia" in medieval Greek sources) His first-born son, Saint Stephen I, became the first King of Hungary after defeating his pagan uncle Koppány, who also claimed the throne.
Under Stephen, Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom.
From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of later Hungary's territory.
Here, a 600-strong Roman legion created the settlement Aquincum in AD 41–54.
Following centuries of successive habitation by Celts, Romans, West Slavs, Gepids and Avars, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád in the conquest of the Carpathian Basin.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament (parlamentum publicum).In 1241–1242, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol (Tatar) Invasion.The country switched to using the Latin language, and until as late as 1844, Latin remained the official language of Hungary. The most powerful and wealthiest king of the Árpád dynasty was Béla III, who disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver a year.This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown.The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri.The first element magy is likely from Proto-Ugric *mäńć- 'man, person', also found in the name of the Mansi people (mäńćī, mańśi, måńś).After a destructive period of interregnum (1301–1308), the first Angevin king, Charles I of Hungary – a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty – successfully restored royal power, and defeated oligarch rivals, the so-called "little kings".The second Angevin Hungarian king, Louis the Great (1342–1382), led many successful military campaigns from Lithuania to Southern Italy (Kingdom of Naples), and was also King of Poland from 1370.By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century.Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526 and about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary came under Habsburg rule, and later formed the great power Austro–Hungarian Empire together with Austria.